The film reunites the actors with Christopher Nolan, who recently directed them in the the popular film "Inception."
"When you collaborate with people as talented as Marion and Joe, it comes as no surprise that you would want to repeat the experience," Nolan said on Tuesday.
Cotillard, an Oscar winner, will appear as Miranda Tate, a Wayne Enterprises board member eager to help a still-grieving Bruce Wayne resume his father's philanthropic endeavors for Gotham.
Gordon-Levitt will play John Blake, a Gotham City policeman.
Christian Bale stars as Bruce Wayne and Batman. The main cast also includes Anne Hathaway and Tom Hardy.
The film is due for release in July 2012.